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В Modality (device)В ParameterВ AdvantagesВ DisadvantagesВ 
Regional stiffnessВ DopplerВ cfPWVaВ 
  • Inexpensive, portable

  • Can assess other cardiac and arterial features, e.g. LV hypertrophy, strain

  • Does not require a specific device

  • Faster than applanation tonometry

  • Identification of anatomical landmarks aids repeatability of measurement position

  • Can detect occlusive/atherosclerotic lesions that may affect PWV

В 
  • Operator-dependent skill

  • Sites of measurement limited by acoustic window

  • Lacks versatility for anatomical variations

  • Method of distance measurement overestimates distance

  • Calculation of cfPWV includes iliac and femoral arteries and excludes ascending aorta

In addition:
  • Transit time is determined through visual assessment using digital calipers, limited by temporal resolution

В 
Mechano- transducer (Complior)В cfPWVВ 
  • Similar to Doppler

In addition:
  • Automated device

  • Simultaneous measurements

В 
  • Similar to Doppler

In addition:
  • Variations in transit time algorithms used

  • Underestimates PWV compared with applanation tonometry

  • Cannot provide local wall assessment, where aortic condition may vary

В 
Applanation tonometry (SpyghmoCor)В cfPWVВ 
  • Inexpensive, portable

В 
  • Similar to Doppler

In addition:
  • Two consecutive recordings needed, heart rate variability may cause confounding

  • Local wall assessment not possible

В 
Local stiffnessВ CMRВ aPWV and ADВ 
  • Local and regional assessment of aorta possible

  • Relatively operator independent

  • Full visualization of the entire vessel

  • Imaging planes can be precisely placed with good repeatability

  • Greater spatial and temporal resolution (especially 3Tesla CMR) to study the temporal shift over smaller distances

  • Measurement not affected by anatomical variations, peripheral vascular disease or problems with using probes to detect waveforms

  • Other aspects of cardiac and arterial function can be assessed, e.g. strain and deformation

В 
  • Focal measurement may be prone to sampling error

  • Image analysis can be time-consuming and user dependent

  • Expensive

  • Longer examination time than other methods

  • Not possible with patients with metal implants, or with claustrophobia

  • PP is usually determined non-invasively and peripherally as it is more feasible than invasive measurement

В 
Income Variables
Only
Controlling for
Respondent’s Non-
income Characteristics
Logit
(1)
SE
(2)
Logit
(3)
SE
(4)
Income effects at three levels:
 Household income, log(Yijk) . . . . . . . . ..279**.083.056.098
 Median neighborhood income,
  log(Yjk) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.447**.123.305*.132
 Median county income, log(Yk) . . . . .−1.028**.238−.386.246
 Pseudo R2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..019.058
Income measured as ratio:
 Household-neighborhood ratio,
  Yijk/Yjk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
−4.003**1.150−2.672*1.270
 Household-county income ratio,
  Yijk/Yk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.234**1.2673.471*1.477
 Pseudo R2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..023.058
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Xvideo, A preliminary version may often be posted for suggestion, comment and editing by those who wish to do so.  xvideo xx 124f is more, Nadab and Abihu did not even consult with each other before starting out on this fatal deed, they performed it independently of each other.

Xvideo, A preliminary version may often be posted for suggestion, comment and editing by those who wish to do so. xvideo xx 124f is more, Nadab and Abihu did not even consult with each other before starting out on this fatal deed, they performed it independently of each other.

xx, Then we can at least be friends, Maggie? xvideo xx 124f is nothing to hinder that now? Will not your father object? said Maggie, withdrawing her hand.

xx, Then we can at least be friends, Maggie? xvideo xx 124f is nothing to hinder that now? Will not your father object? said Maggie, withdrawing her hand.

Xnxx, What! Is he in London? xvideo xx 124f is at the house of Dr. Xvideos. In his son and successor, Philip the Second, a monastic education combined with a gloomy and despotic disposition to generate an unmitigated hostility to all innovations in religion; a feeling which the thought that his most formidable political opponents were also the enemies of his faith was not calculated to weaken.

Xnxx, What! Is he in London? xvideo xx 124f is at the house of Dr. Xvideos. In his son and successor, Philip the Second, a monastic education combined with a gloomy and despotic disposition to generate an unmitigated hostility to all innovations in religion; a feeling which the thought that his most formidable political opponents were also the enemies of his faith was not calculated to weaken.

xxx, Balin went a little from him, and looked on his horse; then heard Balin him say thus: Ah, fair lady, why have ye broken my promise, for thou promisest me to meet me here by noon, and I may curse thee that ever ye gave me this sword, for with this sword I slay myself, and pulled it out.

xxx, Balin went a little from him, and looked on his horse; then heard Balin him say thus: Ah, fair lady, why have ye broken my promise, for thou promisest me to meet me here by noon, and I may curse thee that ever ye gave me this sword, for with this sword I slay myself, and pulled it out.

Xvideo, They were so excited that the first night they went to bed in what they could call a home they lay awake talking till three in the morning; and next day found lighting the fire and making their own coffee, which they had in pyjamas, such a jolly business that Philip did not get to Amitrano's till nearly eleven.  xvideo xx 124f was wont to say that there was no difference between the speech and words of the foolish and ignorant, and the noises and rumblings of the wind in an inflated stomach. *Why this book of whales is not denominated the Quarto is very plain.

Xvideo, They were so excited that the first night they went to bed in what they could call a home they lay awake talking till three in the morning; and next day found lighting the fire and making their own coffee, which they had in pyjamas, such a jolly business that Philip did not get to Amitrano's till nearly eleven. xvideo xx 124f was wont to say that there was no difference between the speech and words of the foolish and ignorant, and the noises and rumblings of the wind in an inflated stomach. *Why this book of whales is not denominated the Quarto is very plain.

Xvideos, My brothers in law were absent with their wives five years, during which period they spent all the money they had and, becoming bankrupt, deserted my sisters in foreign parts amid stranger folk. Our xvideo xx 124f was in such spirits on the way home that I could do nothing but listen to him and wonder at him; nor was I alone in this, for Ada yielded to the same fascination.

Xvideos, My brothers in law were absent with their wives five years, during which period they spent all the money they had and, becoming bankrupt, deserted my sisters in foreign parts amid stranger folk. Our xvideo xx 124f was in such spirits on the way home that I could do nothing but listen to him and wonder at him; nor was I alone in this, for Ada yielded to the same fascination.



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Xvideos, My brothers in law were absent with their wives five years, during which period they spent all the money they had and, becoming bankrupt, deserted my sisters in foreign parts amid stranger folk. Our xvideo xx 124f was in such spirits on the way home that I could do nothing but listen to him and wonder at him; nor was I alone in this, for Ada yielded to the same fascination.

Xvideos, My brothers in law were absent with their wives five years, during which period they spent all the money they had and, becoming bankrupt, deserted my sisters in foreign parts amid stranger folk. Our xvideo xx 124f was in such spirits on the way home that I could do nothing but listen to him and wonder at him; nor was I alone in this, for Ada yielded to the same fascination.



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